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Today in History, November 2

AAP logoAAP 1/11/2016

Highlights in history on this date:

1483 - Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, is beheaded for his rebellion against King Richard III.

1642 - In the Thirty Years' War, a retreating Swedish force defeats the Austrians at the second Battle of Breitenfeld; at least 10,000 Austrians are killed.

1687 - Ottoman ruler Mohammed IV is deposed in revolution in Constantinople and succeeded by Suleiman III.

1785 - First lifeboat is patented by London coach builder Lionel Lukin.

1788 - NSW colonial settlement is established at Rose Hill (Parramatta.)

1841 - In Afghanistan, following the British occupation of Kabul, Afghans revolt and murder Sir Alexander Burnes and 23 others, heralding the start of the second Afghan War.

1902 - Sydney bather William Gocher is arrested at Manly Beach for wearing a swimsuit in daylight.

1917 - Arthur Balfour, British foreign secretary, submits a declaration of intent known as the Balfour Declaration to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

1930 - Haile Selassie is crowned emperor of Ethiopia.

1936 - First public regular high-definition television service inaugurated by the BBC at Alexandra Palace.

1938 - Hungary annexes southern Slovakia following the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia at the Munich agreement in September.

1947 - US billionaire-aviator Howard Hughes pilots his huge wooden airplane known as Spruce Goose on its only flight, which lasted about a minute over Long Beach Harbour, California.

1948 - Despite all opinion polls pointing to the contrary, US President Harry S Truman retains office in a stunning election win over Republican challenger Thomas E Dewey.

1950 - Death of Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw.

1953 - Pakistan's parliament declares the country "the Islamic Republic of Pakistan".

1955 - David Ben-Gurion forms ministry in Israel.

1956 - Gaza, Egypt, falls to British in Suez War; Hungarian government renounces Warsaw Treaty, appeals to UN against Soviet invasion; Soviet Union vetos western powers' request for UN Security Council to consider crisis.

1958 - Last British troops leave Jordan.

1961 - Sheik Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa takes power in Bahrain after his father dies.

1962 - US President John F Kennedy announces end to Cuban missile crisis, says Soviet Union has been dismantling bases in Cuba.

1963 - President Ngo Dinh Diem is assassinated in army coup in South Vietnam.

1964 - King Saud of Saudi Arabia is deposed, and Faisal is proclaimed king.

1965 - Death of Herbert Vere ("Doc") Evatt, Australian judge and MP who led the Australian delegation to the meeting that founded the United Nationd in 1945.

1967 - White mercenaries and black troops invade the Congo from Portuguese Angola.

1976 - Jimmy Carter is elected 39th US president, defeating Gerald Ford.

1978 - Two Soviet cosmonauts return to earth from the Salyut-6 space station after setting a new endurance record of 139 days, 14 hours.

1980 - Iranian parliament votes for the release of American hostages held at the US embassy, but sets conditions; they were eventually released in January 1981.

1985 - Government of South Africa imposes severe restrictions on TV, radio and newspaper coverage of unrest by local and foreign journalists.

1986 - In Beirut, US hostage David Jacobsen is released from captivity after being held by Islamic Jihad since May 28, 1985.

1987 - Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev marks 70th anniversary of Bolshevik Revolution with scathing criticism of former Soviet leader Josef Stalin.

1988 - Government imposes nationwide night curfew in Sri Lanka and puts security forces on maximum alert.

1991 - Yugoslav army renews attacks on Croatia on eve of what could be European Community's last attempt to bring about settlement between Serbs and Croats.

1992 - Basketball star Magic Johnson retires for a second time from the Los Angeles Lakers.

1993 - Sarajevo shivers in frigid temperatures as Bosnian Serbs block UN engineering crews from repairing vital electrical lines.

1994 - River of fire ignited by an oil tank explosion surges through a village in southern Egypt, killing more than 410 people.

1995 - Former South African defence minister Magnus Malan and 10 retired senior officers are arrested and accused of apartheid-era murders; Suicide attackers set off back-to-back car bombs near Israeli buses in the Gaza Strip, injuring 11 Israelis in apparent retaliation for the slaying of a radical.

1996 - A US Air Force F-16 fighter plane fires a missile at an Iraqi radar site while in the no-fly zone over southern Iraq.

1997 - On the last day of an historic state visit to the United States, Chinese President Jiang Zemin promotes Trans-Pacific business in California.

1998 - Chaos and looting erupts in Central America after Hurricane Mitch, which killed more than 7000.

1999 - Prominent Zulu prince Cyril Zulu, the mayor-designate of Durban, is assassinated by unknown gunmen. The prince was also a prominent negotiator in keeping peace between warring political groups in South Africa.

2000 - One American astronaut and two Russian cosmonauts move into the international space station for a four-month stay and give their new home a name - Alpha; A mutiny by Fiji's elite Counter Revolutionary Warfare unit in the Queen Elizabeth Barracks is quelled after a gun battle in which eight soldiers die.

2001 - President George W Bush, saying the war in Afghanistan is unravelling Osama bin Laden's terrorist network, chides critics for clamouring for more action, and says the US military campaign will not pause for the Muslim holiday of Ramadan.

2002 - US President George W Bush calls Saddam Hussein a "dangerous man" with links to terrorist networks, as Security Council members await a revised US resolution to disarm Iraq.

2003 - The Rev Canon V Gene Robinson is consecrated as the first openly gay bishop of the US Episcopal Church, a move that threatens to tear apart the worldwide Anglican community.

2004 - A filmmaker who is the great-grandnephew of Vincent van Gogh, Theo van Gogh, is slain in a daylight attack after making a movie criticising the treatment of Muslim women. Police arrest a Dutch-Moroccan man after wounding him in a shootout.

2005 - Chinese scientists say they have gathered evidence showing a giant object in the centre of our galaxy is a super-massive black hole as wide as the radius of the earth's orbit.

2006 - Iran test-fires dozens of missiles, including the Shahab-3 that can reach Israel, in military manoeuvers it says are aimed at putting a stop to the role of world powers in the Persian Gulf region.

2007 - Morocco recalls its ambassador from Spain after King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia announce plans to visit two Spanish enclaves in North Africa. Morocco's claim to them is a consistent sore spot in bilateral relations.

2010 - Britain and France strike a historic defence deal aimed at preserving military muscle in an age of austerity, pledging to deploy troops under a single command, share aircraft carriers and collaborate on once fiercely guarded nuclear programs.

2011 - The government introduces legislation for its mineral resource rent tax into parliament; Syria accepts an Arab League proposal calling for it to withdraw armoured vehicles from the streets and stop violence against protesters in a bid to end the country's seven-month political crisis, an agreement met with deep skepticism by Syria's opposition.

2012 - A video appearing to show a unit of Syrian rebels kicking terrified, captured soldiers and then executing them with machine-guns raises concerns about rebel brutality at a time when the United States is pushing to forge an opposition movement it can work with.

2013 - Gunmen abduct and kill two French radio journalists in northern Mali, grabbing the pair as they left the home of a rebel leader.

2014 - Western Sydney Wanderers win the Asian Champions League final.

2015 - Marriage equality advocates welcome an endorsement by Foreign Minister Julie Bishop, who says she has "absolutely no concerns" about same-sex unions.

Today's Birthdays

Daniel Boone, US pioneer (1734-1820); Marie Antoinette, wife of France's King Louis XVI (1755-1793); James Polk, 11th US president (1795-1849); Warren Harding, 29th US president (1865-1923); Luchino Visconti, Italian film director (1906-1976); Odysseus Elytis, pseud of Odysseus Alepoudelis, Greek poet and Nobel laureate (1911-1996); Burt Lancaster, US actor (1913-1994); Ken Rosewall, Australian tennis champion (1934-); Stefanie Powers, US actress (1942-); Shere Hite, US author (1942-); Keith Emerson, UK musician (1944-); Alan Jones, Australian motor-racing driver (1946-); kd lang, Canadian singer (1961-); David Schwimmer, US actor (1966-); Nelly, US rapper (1974-).

Thought for Today:

Vanity is as ill at ease under indifference, as tenderness is under the love which it cannot return - George Eliot, English author (1819-1880).

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