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Arctic stronghold of world’s seeds flooded after permafrost melts

The Guardian logo The Guardian 5/19/2017 Damian Carrington Environment editor

<p> If everything goes wrong - if because of disaster, climate change, or nuclear war, life as we know it comes to an end, with parts of the earth rendered inhospitable with widespread environmental devastation, the <a href="https://www.croptrust.org/what-we-do/svalbard-global-seed-vault/"> Svalbard Global Seed Vault</a> is a resource that could come to our rescue. </p><p> Hidden approximately 400 feet deep inside a mountain on a remote island between mainland Norway and the North Pole, the vault stores valuable seeds from crops all over the world. Buried in a mountainside in the Arctic, it's supposed to be protected and supposed to naturally stay at a safe temperature to store all those seeds.</p><p> But extreme temperatures in the Arctic this past winter - combined with heavy rain instead of snow - led to melting permafrost that gushed into the tunnel leading into the vault, <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/may/19/arctic-stronghold-of-worlds-seeds-flooded-after-permafrost-melts?CMP=fb_gu"> according to a report in The Guardian</a>, raising questions about whether or not the doomsday vault will survive a warming planet.</p><p> "It was not in our plans to think that the permafrost would not be there and that it would experience extreme weather like that," Hege Njaa Aschim, of the Norweigan government, which controls the vault, <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/may/19/arctic-stronghold-of-worlds-seeds-flooded-after-permafrost-melts?CMP=fb_gu"> told The Guardian</a>. "A lot of water went into the start of the tunnel and then it froze to ice, so it was like a glacier when you went in."</p><p> The water didn't travel all the way down into the vault itself, which is still safe, and they were able to chip all of the ice out the entryway. </p><p> Here's what the vault looks like inside - and why the administrators are now worried about the potentially devastating effects of warming:</p> The doomsday vault that's supposed to store every known crop on the planet is in danger It was designed as an impregnable deep-freeze to protect the world’s most precious seeds from any global disaster and ensure humanity’s food supply forever. But the Global Seed Vault, buried in a mountain deep inside the Arctic circle, has been breached after global warming produced extraordinary temperatures over the winter, sending meltwater gushing into the entrance tunnel.

The vault is on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen and contains almost a million packets of seeds, each a variety of an important food crop. When it was opened in 2008, the deep permafrost through which the vault was sunk was expected to provide “failsafe” protection against “the challenge of natural or man-made disasters”.

But soaring temperatures in the Arctic at the end of the world’s hottest ever recorded year led to melting and heavy rain, when light snow should have been falling. “It was not in our plans to think that the permafrost would not be there and that it would experience extreme weather like that,” said Hege Njaa Aschim, from the Norwegian government, which owns the vault.

“A lot of water went into the start of the tunnel and then it froze to ice, so it was like a glacier when you went in,” she told the Guardian. Fortunately, the meltwater did not reach the vault itself, the ice has been hacked out, and the precious seeds remain safe for now at the required storage temperature of -18C.

But the breach has questioned the ability of the vault to survive as a lifeline for humanity if catastrophe strikes. “It was supposed to [operate] without the help of humans, but now we are watching the seed vault 24 hours a day,” Aschim said. “We must see what we can do to minimise all the risks and make sure the seed bank can take care of itself.”

Plastic boxes containing plant seeds inside the international Svalbard Global Seed Vault on Spitsbergen, Norway. © Provided by Guardian News Plastic boxes containing plant seeds inside the international Svalbard Global Seed Vault on Spitsbergen, Norway. The vault’s managers are now waiting to see if the extreme heat of this winter was a one-off or will be repeated or even exceeded as climate change heats the planet. The end of 2016 saw average temperatures over 7C above normal on Spitsbergen, pushing the permafrost above melting point.

“The question is whether this is just happening now, or will it escalate?” said Aschim. The Svalbard archipelago, of which Spitsbergen is part, has warmed rapidly in recent decades, according to Ketil Isaksen, from Norway’s Meteorological Institute.

“The Arctic and especially Svalbard warms up faster than the rest of the world. The climate is changing dramatically and we are all amazed at how quickly it is going,” Isaksen told Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet.

Related: Arctic ice falls to record winter low after polar 'heatwaves'

The vault managers are now taking precautions, including major work to waterproof the 100m-long tunnel into the mountain and digging trenches into the mountainside to channel meltwater and rain away. They have also removed electrical equipment from the tunnel that produced some heat and installed pumps in the vault itself in case of a future flood.

Aschim said there was no option but to find solutions to ensure the enduring safety of the vault: “We have to find solutions. It is a big responsibility and we take it very seriously. We are doing this for the world.”

“This is supposed to last for eternity,” said Åsmund Asdal at the Nordic Genetic Resource Centre, which operates the seed vault.

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