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Scientists sound alarm over new 'worst-ever' super-mutant Covid strain

Daily Mail logo Daily Mail 11/25/2021 Connor Boyd and Michael Pickering For Daily Mail Australia
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Scientists have sounded the alarm over a new 'worst-ever' super-mutant Covid variant that will make vaccines at least 40 per cent less effective, as Australia said it will monitor its progress 'very carefully'. 

Experts explained earlier how the B.1.1.529 variant has more than 30 mutations – the most ever recorded in a variant and twice as many as Delta – that suggest it could be more jab-resistant and transmissible than any version before it.

The variant - which could be named 'Nu' by the World Health Organization in the coming days - has caused an 'exponential' rise in infections in South Africa and has already spread to three countries – including Hong Kong and Botswana, where it is believed to have emerged.    

The Federal government is monitoring the progress of the variant and could ban flights from the affected African countries.

Prime Minister Scott Morrison told reporters on Friday morning that the variant was under investigation but 'not a variant of concern. But that can change.'

'We monitor all of these variants. We note the responses that are made by other countries and we consider those in real-time,' he said. 

Federal Health Minister Greg Hunt said he had been briefed on the variant by Chief Medical Officer Paul Kelly and Professor Brendan Murphy, and said Australia was 'well prepared' in the event of it spreading. 

'They are investigating and reviewing the South African variant in conjunction with the World Health Organisation and our international partners,' he said.

'At this stage they are gathering information. It has the potential to be a new variant but the world is still learning and looking at that. 

'We are well prepared and able to act quickly if there is advice…the advice at the moment is to engage with the international communities. 

Finance Minister Simon Birmingham told Sky News the Government stands ready to ban flights from affected nations, saying: 'If we need to target closures in certain locations then we won't hesitate to do so.'

Australia is closed to tourists but will open to foreign skilled migrants and students from December 1 as long as they are vaccinated and test negative.

In April the Government banned flights from India, including for Australian citizens, for two weeks due a severe Delta outbreak on the subcontinent.

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One senior UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) expert said: 'This is the worst variant we have seen so far.'

Only 59 confirmed cases have been identified in South Africa, Hong Kong and Botswana.

The variant has over 30 mutations - around twice as many as the Delta variant - which could potentially make it more transmissible and evade the protection given by prior infection or vaccination.

The expert whose modelling helped instigate the first coronavirus lockdown said that the decision to impose travel restrictions was 'prudent'.

Professor Neil Ferguson, a member of the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (Sage), said: 'The B.1.1.529 variant has an unprecedented number of mutations in the spike protein gene, the protein which is the target of most vaccines.

'There is therefore a concern that this variant may have a greater potential to escape prior immunity than previous variants.

'It is also concerning that this variant appears to be driving a rapid increase in case numbers in South Africa. The Government's move to restrict travel with South Africa is therefore prudent.

'However, we do not yet have reliable estimates of the extent to which B.1.1.529 might be either more transmissible or more resistant to vaccines, so it is too early to be able to provide an evidence-based assessment of the risk it poses.' 

Video: Virus can mutate in 'immunosuppressed and unvaccinated' (Sky News)


One senior scientist said: 'One of our major worries is this virus spike protein is so dramatically different to the virus spike that was in the original Wuhan strain, and therefore in our vaccines, that it has a great cause of concern.'

Experts from the World Health Organisation (WHO) are meeting with South African officials on Friday to assess the evolving situation in the country.

The variant could eventually be given the moniker 'Nu' - with the most concerning variants given named after the Greek alphabet.   

This chart shows the proportion of cases that were the B.1.1.529 variant (blue) and Indian 'Delta' variant (red) over time in South Africa. It suggests that the mutant strain could outcompete Delta in the province within weeks

This chart shows the proportion of cases that were the B.1.1.529 variant (blue) and Indian 'Delta' variant (red) over time in South Africa. It suggests that the mutant strain could outcompete Delta in the province within weeks
© Provided by Daily Mail

Great Britain announced that flights from South Africa, Namibia, Lesotho, Botswana, Eswatini and Zimbabwe will be suspended from midday Friday and all six countries will be added to the red list. 

Britain's Health Secretary Sajid Javid said: 'The early indication we have of this variant is it may be more transmissible than the Delta variant and the vaccines that we currently have may be less effective against it.

'Now to be clear, we have not detected any of this new variant in the UK at this point in time. But we've always been clear that we will take action to protect the progress that we have made.

'So what we will be doing is from midday tomorrow we will be suspending all flights from six, southern African countries and we will add in those countries to the travel red list. 

'Those countries are South Africa, Namibia, Lesotho, Eswatini, Zimbabwe and Botswana. We will be requiring anyone that arrives from those countries from 4am on Sunday to quarantine in hotels.' 

Two cases have been detected in Hong Kong – both of whom had links to South Africa –three have been picked up in Botswana and the remainder are in South Africa.

But a lack of surveillance on continental Africa may be underestimating the true numbers there, scientists warned. 

A baby cries as her mother receives her Pfizer vaccine against COVID-19, in Diepsloot Township near Johannesburg, South Africa © Provided by Daily Mail A baby cries as her mother receives her Pfizer vaccine against COVID-19, in Diepsloot Township near Johannesburg, South Africa

UK experts say it will be another two to eight weeks until they can study the variant in enough detail to work out how infectious or vaccine-resistant it is.

Nationally, infections in South Africa have surged tenfold from 100 per day to 1,100, after the variant was first detected in neighbouring Botswana on November 11.

UK Government scientists believe it can infect previously-infected patients with ease, because South Africa has very high levels of natural immunity.

Only 41 percent of adults have received at least a single dose of vaccine, while 35 percent are fully vaccinated.

In a hastily organised press conference today, the South African Government revealed the variant had been officially spotted in three provinces but warned it was probably already in all nine. 

The fact that South Africa has the largest number of people living HIV out of any country in the world has complicated its fight against Covid, as immuno-compromised people can harbor the virus for longer, scientists say.   

Professor Francois Balloux, a geneticist at University College London, said the variant could become dominant in South Africa 'very quickly'.

Asked whether it could soon make up the majority of cases in South Africa, he told MailOnline: 'The numbers [of cases] are very small and there is a lot of uncertainty... but I would say it might become dominant very quickly.'

He said it was 'plausible' that the variant was more infectious because it was 'better at infecting' people that had immunity from vaccines or previous infections.

But he said very little is known about how likely someone who catches the variant would be to become seriously ill and die from the virus. Experts say viruses normally become less virulent over time. 

Professor Tulio de Oliveira, a director of Covid surveillance in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, said that the variant had spread rapidly in South Africa.

'In less than two weeks it now dominates all infections following a devastating Delta wave in South Africa.

'We estimate that 90 per cent of cases in Gauteng (at least 1,000 a day) [are this variant].'

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