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Derek Chauvin trial: Minneapolis police chief says officer 'absolutely’ violated policy while restraining Floyd

The Washington Post logo The Washington Post 4/5/2021 Abigail Hauslohner, Mark Berman, Holly Bailey, Meryl Kornfield, Keith McMillan, Lateshia Beachum
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During one of the most anticipated moments in the trial, Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo unequivocally told the court Monday afternoon that Derek Chauvin, the former Minneapolis police officer who knelt on George Floyd’s neck before he died, violated the department’s policy in his use of force to restrain Floyd. He followed two other senior Minneapolis police officials who took the stand. It is remarkably rare for top officials to testify against one of their own officers, experts say.

In the second week of witness testimony, Bradford Langenfeld, the emergency physician who tried to revive Floyd at a hospital and later pronounced him dead, said Floyd probably died because he was deprived of oxygen. Defense attorneys have been trying to establish that drugs or other causes might have been responsible.

The trial will resume Tuesday morning.

Here’s what to know:

  • “Clearly when Mr. Floyd was no longer responsive — and even motionless — to continue to apply that level of force to a person proned out, handcuffed behind their back, that in no way, shape or form is anything that is set by policy, is not part of our training and is certainly not part of our ethics or values,” the Minneapolis police chief said.
  • Arradondo said that he first viewed the Floyd “bystander video” after receiving a call from a Minneapolis resident, asking, “Chief, have you seen the video of your officer choking and killing that man at 30th and Chicago?”
  • While cross-examining the chief, Eric Nelson, Chauvin’s attorney, subtly alluded to the threats police face, noting that they could confront dangers during even commonplace moments like traffic stops.
  • Shown a photo of Chauvin’s position with his knee on Floyd by the prosecution, Inspector Katie Blackwell, who previously led the training program for Minneapolis Police Department, said the posture did not comply with training.
  • The morning began with the prosecution and defense in a dispute over whether police officers will be allowed to give their opinion on what they would have done and which types of training Chauvin received.
  • Prosecutors face a steep legal challenge in winning a conviction against a police officer. Despite nationwide protests, police are rarely charged when they kill someone on duty. And even when they are, convictions are often difficult.
  • The first week of the Chauvin trial came down to this, again and again, writes Monica Hesse: Who gets to be scared in America.

6:00 PM: Former training supervisor says Chauvin’s position on Floyd’s neck is ‘not what we train’

Shown a photo of Chauvin’s position with his knee on Floyd by the prosecution, Inspector Katie Blackwell, who previously led the training program for the Minneapolis Police Department, said the posture did not comply with training.

“I don’t know what kind of improvised position that is,” Blackwell said. “That’s not what we train.”

Prosecutors have argued that Chauvin’s use of force did not comply with what officers are taught. Blackwell, formerly the commander of the 5th Precinct, testified that Chauvin, whom she said she had known for 20 years, attended at least two training sessions in the past three years on the use of force. That instruction also includes medical training, she said.

Officers learn to prevent positional asphyxia — when someone has difficulty breathing because of the position they are in — by moving that person to their side “as soon as possible.”

Eric Nelson, Chauvin’s attorney, in a brief cross-examination, asked Blackwell whether different trainers can present lessons in varied ways, sometimes using old material. Blackwell said that could happen “at times.”

By: Meryl Kornfield

5:09 PM: Police chief’s testimony another unusual feature of this trial

Arradondo’s testimony was among the most anticipated moments in the trial, in part because this kind of appearance on the stand is so unusual. It’s remarkably rare for a police chief to take the stand against one of their officers, experts say.

Even more striking is that this is the second time Arradondo has testified while a Minneapolis police officer stood trial for murder. In 2019, he testified when officer Mohamed Noor was on trial for shooting and killing Justine Damond, a woman who had called 911 to report hearing a possible sexual assault.

That shooting in 2017, and the ensuing outcry, helped Arradondo become police chief in the first place. Amid the uproar over the shooting, the city’s police chief, Janee Harteau, was forced out and Arradondo stepped into the role, becoming the department’s first Black chief.

Arradondo’s testimony also has been widely anticipated because having a sitting police chief testify in uniform provides a powerful voice for the prosecution. Arradondo’s testimony could be viewed as speaking on behalf of the city’s entire police department, whether or not he intends his remarks that way.

His testimony, along with those from veteran police officials last week, also seem aimed at the defense's argument that Chauvin was following police training while kneeling on Floyd.

While cross-examining the chief, Eric Nelson, Chauvin’s attorney, subtly alluded to the threats police face, noting that they could confront dangers during even commonplace moments like traffic stops. While legal analysts think Chauvin will have a hard time arguing he feared for his life, Nelson has said the officers felt threatened by the crowd gathered around them and Floyd that day.

“If the jury sees Chauvin as the defense is trying to portray him, as simply doing what he was trained to do as a police officer, it would be nearly impossible for them to find that he intended to harm Mr. Floyd, a finding necessary for a second degree murder conviction,” Craig B. Futterman, a law professor at the University of Chicago and director of the Civil Rights and Police Accountability Project, wrote in an email.

“The prosecution’s testimony from high ranking officers … provides a powerful counterweight to the defense argument,” he wrote.

By: Mark Berman

4:42 PM: Arradondo: Chauvin use of force on Floyd ‘in no way, shape or form is anything that is set by policy’

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Arradondo unequivocally told the court Monday afternoon that Chauvin had violated the department’s policy in his use of force to restrain Floyd.

The Minneapolis police chief said that Chauvin’s placement of his knee on Floyd’s neck was “not de-escalation” — as police are taught to prioritize in an encounter with a suspect — and was “contrary to what we’re taught” in terms of placing the sanctity of life above all else.

Clearly when Mr. Floyd was no longer responsive — and even motionless — to continue to apply that level of force to a person proned out, handcuffed behind their back,” Arradondo said, “that in no way, shape or form is anything that is set by policy, is not part of our training, and is certainly not part of our ethics or values.”

After first watching footage of the incident captured by a security camera, Arradondo was told by a community member about the bystander video that had gone viral. When he watched from that angle, he said, he could better see Floyd motionless under Chauvin’s knee.

Nelson, Chauvin’s attorney, asked Arradondo whether officers sometimes have to use force to “de-escalate” a situation, arguing that the decision to do so varies depending on the moment.

Arradondo said that he did not “have a lot of knowledge in terms of physical force being used to actually de-escalate” but agreed that threatening use of force could be a tactic to defuse a situation.

By: Abigail Hauslohner and Meryl Kornfield

4:06 PM: Arradondo talks about the first time he learned about the Floyd video

The police chief, who first explained existing and previous police department policies, including the use of neck restraints, was also asked to recall the moments when he first became aware of and reviewed video evidence of the incident. Arradondo said he received a call that night from a Minneapolis resident, asking, “Chief, have you seen the video of your officer choking and killing that man at 30th and Chicago?” and that it was shortly after that call that he first viewed what has become known as the “bystander video.”

The video marked the first time that Arradondo was able to get a good look at Chauvin’s tactics, and Floyd’s face, and hear the latter man in grave distress. Not only did Chauvin’s restraint of Floyd violate the police department’s previous guidance for when a deadly chokehold could be employed, he said, but Chauvin also should have immediately ceased the action when Floyd stopped resisting.

Chauvin kept his knee on Floyd’s neck for more than nine minutes.

“In no way, shape or form is that … part of our training, and it is certainly not part of our ethics or our values,” Arradondo said.

By: Abigail Hauslohner

3:51 PM: A brief guide to the ‘objectively reasonable’ defense invoked by police

While questioning the Minneapolis police chief, Chauvin’s attorney, Eric Nelson, invoked the so-called “objectively reasonable” defense that can often be key to prosecutions of police.

This defense stems from the Supreme Court’s Graham v. Connor decision in 1989, which established that a police officer’s actions must be judged against what another reasonable officer would do when facing the same scenario.

“The ‘reasonableness’ of a particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of a reasonable officer on the scene, rather than with the 20/20 vision of hindsight,” the court ruled.

Experts have said that this defense has played a key role in many use-of-force cases involving police. Prosecutors have struggled to convict police in such cases, particularly those involving murder or manslaughter charges.

Police are allowed to use force, including deadly force, under the law. But experts and attorneys also say this latitude is not unlimited, and an officer should use as much force is needed and no more.

By: Mark Berman

3:16 PM: Arradondo: Sanctity of life ‘vital’ when force is used

a man sitting at a table: In this image from video, Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo testifies Monday. © AP/AP In this image from video, Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo testifies Monday.

As Arradondo, the Minneapolis police chief, sat being quizzed by prosecutors about officer policies and training, he read aloud a section from the unit’s use-of-force manual: Sanctity of life and the protection of the public shall be the cornerstones of the Minneapolis Police Department use-of-force policy.

Arradondo said the policy holds significant importance for how officers handle themselves when interacting with the public because how they use force will forever be a standard by which they are judged.

“While it is absolutely imperative that our officers go home at the end of their shift, we want to make sure and ensure that our community members go home, too,” he said. “So sanctity of life is absolutely vital that that is the pillar for our use of force.”

By: Lateshia Beachum

2:03 PM: Arradondo: We are often ‘the first face of government’ our communities see

a man standing in a room: Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo is sworn by Hennepin County District Judge Peter A. Cahill on the sixth day of witness testimony in the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Pool/Reuters) Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo is sworn by Hennepin County District Judge Peter A. Cahill on the sixth day of witness testimony in the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. (Pool/Reuters)

Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo’s early testimony on Monday included a moment when he spoke broadly about the challenges that police officers face, as well as the responsibility they carry, when they interact with the public.

“We are oftentimes the first face of government that our communities will see, and we will oftentimes meet them at their worst moments,” said Arradondo, who has been with the force since 1989 and has been chief since 2017. “And so the badge that I wear, and that members of the Minneapolis Police Department wear, it means a lot because the first time that we interact with our community members may be the only time in their life that they have an interaction. And so that has to count for something.”

The prosecution spent the late morning and early afternoon questioning the chief about his background and about department training standards. Arradondo, a Minneapolis native, appeared to be using the opportunity to address those in court, but also the rest of his city, including fellow officers.

“It’s very important for us to make sure that we’re meeting our community in that space. Treating them with dignity, being their guardians, and in representing all of the men and women that came before us who served so proudly on this department.”

Later, he was asked about the phrase “serving with compassion.”

“ ‘Serve with compassion’ to me means to understand and authentically accept that we see our neighbor as ourselves,” Arradondo said. “We value one another. We see our community as necessary for our existence.”

By: Keith McMillan

1:52 PM: Chair for Chauvin supporter removed because no one was using it

a man in a suit sitting at a desk in front of a laptop: Defense attorney Eric Nelson, left, and defendant Derek Chauvin, right, listen as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill discusses motions before the court on Monday. (Court TV via AP, Pool) © AP/AP Defense attorney Eric Nelson, left, and defendant Derek Chauvin, right, listen as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill discusses motions before the court on Monday. (Court TV via AP, Pool)

Court security on Monday removed the chair designated for a family member or friend of Derek Chauvin because it has sat empty since March 8, when proceedings opened with jury selection.

The number of people inside the courtroom has been dramatically limited to accommodate pandemic social distancing measures, but two chairs had been set aside at the back of the courtroom – one for an associate of Chauvin and another for George Floyd’s family. Floyd’s relatives have regularly filled their designated seat, but Chauvin’s seat has sat empty until it was taken from the courtroom this week.

A deputy with the Hennepin County Sheriff’s Office, which is providing security in the courtroom, told a pool reporter that if a Chauvin associate shows up for proceedings, the chair will be placed back inside the courtroom.

By: Holly Bailey

12:58 PM: Medaria Arradondo, with Minneapolis police since 1989, became its first Black chief in 2017

a group of people standing in a parking lot: Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo, right, kneels as the hearse of George Floyd arrives at North Central University ahead of a funeral on June 4 in Minneapolis. (Salwan Georges/The Washington Post) © Salwan Georges/The Washington Post Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo, right, kneels as the hearse of George Floyd arrives at North Central University ahead of a funeral on June 4 in Minneapolis. (Salwan Georges/The Washington Post)

Arradondo was appointed as the Minneapolis Police Department’s first African American chief in July 2017. The previous chief resigned following several police shootings, including an incident in which an officer shot and killed an unarmed woman who had made a 911 call to report a potential sexual assault.

Arradondo, born and raised in Minneapolis, joined the MPD in 1989, during what is known as the “Murderapolis” years, when the crack cocaine trade led to a spike in homicides.

In 2007, he joined a group of Black police officers who sued the MPD for discrimination in its hiring, pay and promotion practices. Two years later, the city settled with the officers for $740,000.

He has a contentious relationship with the Minneapolis Police Federation after breaking off union contract negotiations. “There is nothing more debilitating to a chief” than when arbitrators force departments to allow fired officers back onto the police force, Arradondo said in June.

While some young activists have called for reallocation of police resources or abolition of the department, Arradondo has support among some older Black city leaders, including Pastor Ian Bethel, who defended the chief during a church rally the night before the trial. Bethel attributed the city's recent rise in violent crime to the “defunders” on the city council for “fueling a Wild West mentality.”

Meanwhile, only 35 percent of Black residents in Minneapolis supported cutting police funding, according to an August poll.

In January, Arradondo withdrew his name from consideration for chief of police in San Jose, Calif., after submitting his résumé to a recruitment firm.

By: Clyde McGrady

12:15 PM: Emergency physician says Floyd probably died because he was deprived of oxygen, says heart attack unlikely

a man sitting on a table: Emergency room doctor Bradford Wankhede Langenfeld. © Pool/Via Reuters Emergency room doctor Bradford Wankhede Langenfeld.

Bradford Langenfeld, the emergency physician who tried to revive Floyd at the hospital, testified on Monday that Floyd arrived at the Hennepin County Medical Center on the night of May 25 without a heartbeat and suffering from a form of cardiac arrest most typically associated with asphyxiation or traumatic bleeding.

Under questioning from prosecutor Jerry Blackwell, Langenfeld described the details of Floyd’s condition upon arrival at the hospital emergency department and doctors’ efforts to restart his heart and save his life.

“For the majority of his time in our emergency department, he was in PEA arrest,” Langenfeld said, referring to pulseless electrical activity, which he said typically derives from a lack of oxygen to bodily tissue or from severe bleeding.

Blackwell asked whether Floyd was ever in a state in which he would have been considered “shockable” — in which the jolt of a defibrillator, for example, might have restarted his heart to beat on its own.

“No,” Langenfeld said.

Langenfeld, who noted that such a state is more typical of someone who has suffered a heart attack rather than asphyxiation, also said that Floyd did not appear to display the signs of “excited delirium” caused by drug use and that the paramedics did not report that to him.

“I didn’t have any reason to believe that that was the case here,” Langenfeld said.

He said that paramedics reported to have tried for 30 minutes to resuscitate Floyd, that a mechanical tool was used to pump Floyd’s heart artificially and that he administered two drugs — epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate — to try to revive him, to no avail.

Langenfeld, who at the time was still completing his residency, ultimately pronounced Floyd dead.

By: Abigail Hauslohner

11:36 AM: Cahill doesn’t want police testimony to become repetitive

a man wearing a suit and tie: Hennepin County Judge Peter A. Cahill in court on Monday. (Court TV via AP, Pool) © AP/AP Hennepin County Judge Peter A. Cahill in court on Monday. (Court TV via AP, Pool)

Before Monday’s testimony in front of the jury began, the prosecution and defense spent significant time discussing whether talking about police training should be admissible in court.

Chauvin’s attorney, Eric J. Nelson, told the judge that not every single officer should be allowed to testify about training because some officers could have had training that others didn’t. Nelson asked to specifically limit the focus to training that the prosecution could prove Derek Chauvin had undergone.

Judge Peter A. Cahill said he would allow the testimony of the commander in charge of the training unit and two expert witnesses for the state.

“We are getting to the point of being cumulative,” he said. “We’re not asking every officer because that’s cumulative, but also even having to seems like it might be cumulative, but I’ll deal with that later.”

By: Lateshia Beachum

11:23 AM: Two other officers, in addition to Chief Arradondo, expected to testify Monday

a group of people standing around each other: Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo briefs reporters in March. (Nicholas Pfosi/Reuters) © Nicholas Pfosi/Reuters Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo briefs reporters in March. (Nicholas Pfosi/Reuters)

Chauvin defense attorney Eric Nelson confirmed Monday morning that in addition to Arradondo, at least two other officers are expected to take the stand Monday: Katie Blackwell, who used to head the Minneapolis Police Department training, and Sgt. Ker Yang.

In opening statements last Monday, prosecutor Jerry Blackwell said, “You’ll hear from Sgt. Ker Yang, the MPD crisis intervention coordinator. In your custody is in your care. You’re going to learn that when Mr. Floyd was unconscious, that when he was breathless, when he did not have a pulse, that there was a duty to have administered care to let up and get up.”

Prosecutors have argued that Chauvin “betrayed the badge” when he knelt on Floyd’s neck for more than nine minutes and showed disregard for human life. They have argued that he or the officers on the scene could have performed CPR when it became clear that Floyd no longer had a pulse.

In addition to Blackwell and Yang, they have said they plan to call Officer Nicole Mackenzie, the MPD medical support coordinator, to talk about Chauvin’s “duty to provide care.”

By: Holly Bailey

10:58 AM: Police chief who called Floyd’s death ‘murder’ expected to take stand Monday

a person wearing a suit and tie: Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo speaks to reporters on June 10, 2020 in Minneapolis. (Jim Mone/Associated Press) © Jim Mone/AP Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo speaks to reporters on June 10, 2020 in Minneapolis. (Jim Mone/Associated Press)

Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo is expected to testify Monday in the trial of his former officer and subordinate Derek Chauvin.

Arradondo is expected to be questioned about police training and use-of-force policies in his department in addition to why he fired Chauvin from his post last year.

In June 2020, Arradondo said MPD officers have been trained to recognize that arrested suspects should be placed in positions in which they can breathe.

“Mr. George Floyd’s tragic death was not due to a lack of training — the training was there. Chauvin knew what he was doing,” he said at the time. “What happened to Mr. Floyd was murder. Chauvin had his knee on Mr. Floyd’s neck for over seven minutes, and for those last minutes he knew that Floyd was nonresponsive.”

By: Lateshia Beachum

10:53 AM: Judge grants motion to air all of Chauvin’s body camera footage

Judge Peter A. Cahill on Monday granted a motion by Chauvin’s defense attorney Eric Nelson to allow the jury to see the entirety of the officer’s body-worn camera footage, which includes a discussion between Chauvin and fellow officers Kueng and Lane about their belief that Floyd had passed a fraudulent bill to the cashier at Cup Foods, and their decision on who was to travel to the hospital with Floyd.

The conversation took place shortly after paramedics took Floyd away in an ambulance.

Prosecutor Matthew Frank had argued for the exclusion of some of that video, on the grounds that what the officers knew about a fraudulent bill was “irrelevant” to Chauvin’s use of force, and that the jury could be unfairly swayed by the opinions of Officers Kueng and Lane.

Cahill ruled that much of the footage was, in fact, “relevant because it shows Mr. Chauvin’s demeanor and actions immediately following Mr. Floyd’s removal to the hospital.” He ordered the exclusion, however, of another officer’s body camera footage, which shows conversation between Kueng and Lane, without input from Chauvin.

By: Abigail Hauslohner and Holly Bailey

9:53 AM: Perspective: Whose fear matters in America?

a man is walking down the street: Charles McMillian, a witness in the George Floyd trial, poses for a portrait at George Floyd Square on April 3. He testified during the trial's first week of witness testimony. (Octavio Jones/Reuters) © Octavio Jones/Reuters Charles McMillian, a witness in the George Floyd trial, poses for a portrait at George Floyd Square on April 3. He testified during the trial's first week of witness testimony. (Octavio Jones/Reuters)

Charles McMillian, a 61-year-old man who witnessed George Floyd’s excruciating death, testified last week that decades of experience had taught him what horror could await a Black man who is perceived as resisting arrest. That is why he was yelling at Floyd — already pinned to the ground — to “Get up, get in the car. You can’t win.” He broke down as he explained this on the witness stand, remembering how he told police officer Derek Chauvin that Chauvin got to go home safe to his family, and that the people Chauvin interacted with should get to, too.

McMillian did what he could but he couldn’t do enough, he explained. It was a terrifying situation. And that’s what the first week of the Chauvin trial came down to, again and again: who gets to be scared in America.

By: Monica Hesse

9:33 AM: What the questions of Chauvin’s defense attorney reveal

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Derek Chauvin’s defense attorney, Eric Nelson, has made anger and questions about neighborhood safety central to his argument for the former Minneapolis police officer’s acquittal. Play the video to examine further.

By: Amber Ferguson

9:07 AM: Senior officer testifies Friday that use of force was excessive

a man in a suit sitting at a table using a laptop: Lt. Richard Zimmerman of the Minneapolis Police Department testifies on Friday. (Court TV via AP, Pool) © AP/AP Lt. Richard Zimmerman of the Minneapolis Police Department testifies on Friday. (Court TV via AP, Pool)

An emotional week of testimony in the trial of Chauvin concluded Friday with Zimmerman, the senior-most officer in the Minneapolis Police Department, rejecting the former officer’s use of force against Floyd, calling it “uncalled for” and “totally unnecessary.” Zimmerman testified that once someone is handcuffed, “they are not a threat to you at that point” and the amount of force should be immediately reduced. “If your knee is on a person’s neck, that could kill him,” he testified.

Eric Nelson, Chauvin’s attorney, argued Friday that police can use “improvisation” for “whatever force is reasonable and necessary.”

Read the full story

By: Timothy Bella and Abigail Hauslohner

8:50 AM: Shaped by Black Lives Matter, Gen Z watches Chauvin trial with cynicism and urgency: ‘What’s next?’

For 18-year-old Matia Wright and many high school and college-age members of Gen Z, their formative years brought gut punch after gut punch to their faith in the American criminal justice system. Other widely protested deaths of Black Americans followed Trayvon Martin’s, spawning hashtags and headlines but either no charges or no convictions: Eric Garner. Michael Brown. Tamir Rice. Freddie Gray. Breonna Taylor.

Now, the generation that grew up with Black Lives Matter — increasingly activist, attuned to inequity, more likely than their elders to see far-reaching problems behind George Floyd’s killing last May — is watching another case in which they have been anguished bystanders but also key witnesses and drivers of change. The fate of a White ex-police officer is in the hands of a court system that near-majorities of young adults have long viewed as unlikely to deliver justice free from racial bias.

For Gen Z, Floyd’s case is “an orienting point for all their political values coming to life,” said John Della Volpe, who directs polling at the Harvard Kennedy School Institute of Politics and is writing a book on the “Zoomer” generation, often defined as those born from 1997 to 2012. “It’s like Floyd being suffocated is almost a metaphor for millions of other vulnerable people not having the opportunity that White people have had in this country.”

Read the full story

By: Hannah Knowles

8:31 AM: When police kill people, they are rarely prosecuted and hard to convict

a person wearing a suit and tie sitting at a table: Defense attorney Eric Nelson, left, and former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin listen as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides over pre-trial motions on March 25. (Court TV via AP, Pool) © AP/AP Defense attorney Eric Nelson, left, and former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin listen as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides over pre-trial motions on March 25. (Court TV via AP, Pool)

In the Chauvin trial, prosecutors face a steep legal challenge in winning a conviction against a police officer. Despite nationwide protests, police are rarely charged when they kill someone on duty. And even when they are, winning convictions is often difficult.

Between 2005 and 2015, more than 1,400 officers were arrested for a violence-related crime committed on duty. Police charged with committing violent crimes while on duty were convicted more than half the time during that period. In the most serious cases — those involving murder or manslaughter — the conviction rate was lower, hovering around 50 percent.

In comparison, about 6 in 10 people charged with violent crimes are convicted.

Read the full story

By: Mark Berman

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