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Permian intermittency animation (Loving, NM area)

This time series illustrates the importance of frequent monitoring of highly intermittent (but high magnitude) methane point source emissions. This represents several weeks of daily surveys of a ~ 6000 km2 area in the Permian basin with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) at 28,000 ft. By surveying the same area repeatedly we were able to assess the degree of intermittency in emissions from oil & gas production. The dot indicate the locations and relative emission rates (typically ranging from 10-10,000 kgCH4/hr) from sources in the survey area. We estimate that across the entire Permian, ~50% of the emissions from this class of strong point sources are active less than 25% of the time, suggesting "normal" process emissions like pressure relief venting. However the other 50% of the emissions in this population come from sources that are active at least 25% of the time, suggesting persistent activity including leaks and malfunctions - many of which may be ripe for mitigation.
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