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Night sky, July 2022: What you can see this month [maps]

Space logo Space 2 days ago Chris Vaughan
The night sky is more than just the moon and stars, if you know when and where to look. © Provided by Space The night sky is more than just the moon and stars, if you know when and where to look.

The night sky tonight and on any clear night offers an ever-changing display of fascinating objects you can see, from stars and constellations to bright planets, often the moon, and sometimes special events like meteor showers.

Observing the night sky can be done with no special equipment, although a sky map can be very useful, and a good telescope or binoculars will enhance some experiences and bring some otherwise invisible objects into view. You can also use astronomy accessories to make your observing easier, and use our Satellite Tracker page powered by N2YO.com to find out when to see the International Space Station and other satellites. You can also capture the night sky by using any of the best cameras for astrophotography, along with a selection of the best lenses for astrophotography.

Read on to find out what's up in the night sky tonight (planets visible now, moon phases, observing highlights this month) plus other resources (skywatching terms, night sky observing tips and further reading).

Related: The brightest planets in July's night sky: How to see them (and when)

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Monthly skywatching information is provided to Space.com by Chris Vaughan of Starry Night Education, the leader in space science curriculum solutions. Follow Starry Night on Twitter @StarryNightEdu and Chris at @Astrogeoguy.

Editor's note: If you have an amazing skywatching photo you'd like to share for a possible story or image gallery, please contact managing editor Tariq Malik at spacephotos@space.com.

Calendar of observing highlights

Friday, July 1: Earthshine (after sunset)

For the first few evenings of July, the young crescent moon will shine low in the western sky after sunset. Watch for Earthshine, also known as the Ashen Glow and "the old moon in the new moon's arms". That's sunlight reflected off Earth and back toward the moon, slightly brightening the dark portion of the moon's Earth-facing hemisphere. The phenomenon appears for several days after each new moon but is strongest in springtime at mid-northern latitudes when the moon is directly above the sun when it sets.

Monday, July 4: Earth at aphelion

On Monday, July 4 at 3 a.m. EDT, or 07:00 GMT, Earth will reach aphelion, its greatest distance from the sun for this year. Aphelion's 94.51 million miles (152.1 million km) distance is 1.67% farther from the sun than the mean Earth-sun separation of 92.96 million miles (149.6 million km), which is also defined to be 1 Astronomical Unit (1 A.U.). Seasonal temperature variations arise from the varying direction of Earth's axial tilt, as opposed to our distance from the sun. Earth will reach its minimum distance from the sun, or perihelion, on January 4, 2023.

Wednesday, July 6: First quarter moon

The moon will complete the first quarter of its orbit around Earth, as measured from the previous new moon, on Wednesday, July 6 at 10:14 p.m. EDT or 7:14 p.m. PDT. That time converts to 02:14 GMT on July 7. The 90-degree angle formed by the Earth, sun, and moon at that time will cause us to see our natural satellite half-illuminated — on its eastern side. At first quarter, the moon always rises around mid-day and sets around midnight, allowing its pale orb to be seen in the afternoon daytime sky, too. The evenings surrounding the first quarter phase are the best ones for viewing the lunar terrain when it is dramatically lit by low-angled sunlight.

Friday, July 8: The Summer Triangle (all night)

After dusk in early July, Vega, Deneb, and Altair are the first stars to appear in the darkening eastern sky. Those three bright, white stars form the Summer Triangle asterism — an annual feature of the summer sky that remains visible until the end of December! The highest and most easterly of the trio is Vega, in Lyra. At magnitude 0.03, Vega is the brightest star in the summer sky, mainly due to its relative proximity. It's only 25 light-years away from the sun. Magnitude 0.75 Altair, in Aquila, occupies the lower right (southern) corner of the triangle. Altair is 17 light-years from the sun. By contrast, Deneb, which shines somewhat less brightly at magnitude 1.25, is a staggering 2,600 light-years away from us; but it shines so brightly because of its greater intrinsic luminosity. The Milky Way passes between Vega and Altair and through Deneb. The triangle will sit high in the western sky as dawn begins to break.

Saturday, July 9: Mare Imbrium's Golden Handle (all night)

On Saturday night, July 9, the terminator on the waxing gibbous moon will fall just west of Sinus Iridum, the Bay of Rainbows. That semi-circular 155 mile (249 km) diameter feature is a large impact crater that was flooded by the same basalts that filled the much larger Mare Imbrium to its east — forming a rounded "handle" on the western edge of the mare. The "Golden Handle" effect is produced when low-angled sunlight strikes the prominent Montes Jura mountain range surrounding Sinus Iridum on the north and west. Sinus Iridum is almost craterless but hosts a set of northeast-oriented wrinkle ridges that are revealed at this phase.

Sunday, July 10: Bright moon near Antares (evening)

On Sunday evening, July 10, while the bright waxing gibbous moon shines in the southern sky, the very bright, reddish star Antares will sparkle two finger widths to its lower right (or 2 degrees to the celestial south-southwest). They'll be close enough to share the view in binoculars (green circle) and backyard telescopes at low magnification. Antares marks the heart of Scorpius. Its name is Latin for "rival of Mars", referring to its visual resemblance to that planet.

Tuesday, July 12: Asteroid Vesta reverses course (overnight)

On Tuesday, July 12, the eastward prograde motion of the main belt asteroid designated (4) Vesta through the background stars through central Aquarius will slow to a stop (red path with dates:hour). After tonight Vesta will commence a westward retrograde loop that will last until early October. In mid-July Vesta's magnitude 6.37 speck will be observable in binoculars (green circle). Look for it several finger widths to the upper right (or 3 degrees to the celestial northwest) of the medium bright star Skat (aka Delta Aquarii) or two finger widths to the right of the fainter star Tau Aquarii. Vesta will rise after 11 pm local time and then cross the southern sky until the dawn twilight hides it. Retrograde loops occur when Earth, on a faster orbit closer to the sun, passes more distant solar system objects "on the inside track", making them appear to move backwards across the stars.

Wednesday, July 13: Full Buck Supermoon

The moon will reach its full phase on Wednesday, July 13 at 2:38 p.m. EDT or 11:38 a.m. PDT (18:38 GMT). The July full moon, commonly called the Buck Moon, Thunder Moon, or Hay Moon, always shines in or near the stars of Sagittarius or Capricornus. The indigenous Ojibwe people of the Great Lakes region call this moon Abitaa-niibini Giizis, the Halfway Summer Moon, or Mskomini Giizis, the Raspberry Moon. The Cherokees call it Guyegwoni, the Corn in Tassel Moon. The Cree Nation of central Canada calls the June full moon Opaskowipisim, the Feather Moulting Moon (referring to wild water-fowl habits), and the Mohawks call it Ohiarihkó:wa, the Fruits are Ripened Moon. The moon only appears full when it is opposite the sun in the sky, so full moons always rise in the east as the sun is setting, and set in the west at sunrise. Since sunlight is hitting the moon face-on at that time, no shadows are cast. All of the variations in brightness you see arise from differences in the reflectivity, or albedo, of the lunar surface rocks. This full moon will occur only 10 hours after lunar perigee, producing higher tides worldwide and the largest supermoon of 2022. Supermoons shine about 16% brighter and appear 6% larger than an average full moon (red circle).

Friday, July 15: Gibbous moon and Saturn (overnight)

The moon will begin its monthly trip past the bright planets overnight on Friday, July 15. When the waning gibbous moon clears the treetops in the southeast after 11 p.m. local time, it will be shining a palm's width below (or 6 degrees to the celestial south of) the yellowish dot of Saturn. That's just close enough for them to share the view in binoculars (green circle). Before sunrise, the moon and Saturn will have moved into the brightening southwestern sky, and the diurnal motion of the sky will have lowered Saturn to the moon's right.

Saturday, July 16: Jupiter enters the evening sky (midnight)

From mid-July onward, the bright planet Jupiter will rise from the eastern horizon before midnight local time, joining Saturn in the evening sky and kicking our summer planet-viewing into the next gear. Jupiter will rise about four minutes earlier each night, allowing even the youngest skywatchers to view it in the coming weeks. Binoculars will show Jupiter's four Galilean moons dancing to the east and west of the planet. A backyard telescope will better show the moons and reveal dark bands stretching across Jupiter's large disk. The Great Red Spot will cross the planet every second or third night (inset). From time to time, owners of larger telescopes can catch the small, round, black shadow of one or more of the Galilean moons transiting the planet.

Tuesday, July 19: Half-moon passes Jupiter (midnight to dawn)

The moon's trip past the string of bright planets will continue between midnight and dawn on Tuesday morning, July 19. When the waning, half-illuminated moon clears the eastern treetops during the wee hours, it will be shining several finger widths below (or 3 degrees to the celestial southeast of) the bright dot of Jupiter — easily close enough for them to share the view in binoculars. By the time the sky begins to brighten ahead of sunrise, the pair will be halfway up the southern sky. The moon will remain visible in the morning daytime sky, allowing you to seek out Jupiter in daylight by positioning the moon towards the left of your binoculars' field of view (inset). Once you see Jupiter, try finding its bright pinpoint without aid.

Wednesday, July 20: Third quarter moon

The moon will complete three quarters of its orbit around Earth, measured from the previous new moon, on Wednesday, July 20 at 10:19 a.m. EDT or 7:19 a.m. PDT and 14:19 GMT. At the third (or last) quarter phase the moon appears half-illuminated, on its western, sunward side. It will rise around midnight local time, and then remain visible until it sets in the western daytime sky in the early afternoon. Third quarter moons are positioned ahead of the Earth in our trip around the sun. About 3 and a half hours later, Earth will occupy that same location in space. The week of dark, moonless evening skies that follow this phase are the best ones for observing deep sky targets.

Wednesday, July 20: Pluto at opposition (all night)

On Wednesday, July 20, the dim and distant dwarf planet designated (134340) Pluto will reach opposition for 2022. On that date, the Earth will be positioned between Pluto and the sun, minimizing our distance from that outer world and maximizing Pluto's visibility. While at opposition, Pluto will be located 3.12 billion miles, 5.02 billion km, or 279 light-minutes from Earth. Unfortunately, it will shine with an extremely faint visual magnitude of +14.3 which is far too dim for visual observation through backyard telescopes. Pluto will be located in the sky about 3 finger widths above (or 3.5 degrees to the celestial north of) the medium-bright star Omega Sagittarii, which shines well to the left (east) of Sagittarius' Teapot-shaped asterism. Alternatively, seek out Pluto's position two degrees to the lower right of the globular star cluster Messier 75. Even if you can't see Pluto directly, you will know that it is there.

Thursday, July 21: Crescent moon meets Mars (pre-dawn)

When the waning crescent moon becomes visible low in the eastern sky during the wee hours of Thursday morning, July 21, it will be positioned several finger widths to the upper right (or 4 degrees to the celestial west-southwest) of Mars' reddish dot, cozy enough to share the view in binoculars. By the time the sky begins to brighten around 5 a.m., the moon and Mars will be halfway up the southeastern sky. On the following morning, the moon will hop to sit to Mars' lower left (celestial east). In the interim, observers in eastern China, Japan, and northeastern Russia can watch the moon occult Mars around 15:00 GMT.

Friday, July 22: Crescent moon points to Uranus (before dawn)

For about two hours on Friday morning, July 22, before the sky begins to brighten, the waning crescent moon will allow you to find the tiny dot of the magnitude 5.8 blue-green planet Uranus in binoculars (green circle) and backyard telescopes. The Pleiades cluster and reddish Mars will shine nearby. When the moon rises after 1 a.m. local time in the Eastern Time Zone, Uranus will be located a lunar diameter above (or celestial northwest of) the moon. The moon's eastward orbital motion (green line) will carry it steadily farther to Uranus' lower-left each hour, so observers looking later, and in more westerly time zones, will find Uranus up to 3 degrees from the moon. Skywatchers from northeastern Brazil to the Cape Verde Islands and northwestern Africa can watch the moon occult Uranus around 04:30 GMT.

Saturday, July 23: Old moon travels Taurus (pre-dawn)

Early risers on Saturday, July 23 can see the delicate crescent of the old moon shining above the stars of Taurus, the Bull in the eastern sky. Try to look before dawn brightens the sky too much. The pretty Pleiades star cluster, also known as the Seven Sisters and the Hole in the Sky, will be poised several degrees above the moon. The bright orange star Aldebaran will twinkle a fist's diameter below (or about 10 degrees to the celestial southeast). Binoculars will show the Hyades cluster, a triangle of many stars that outline the bull's face to the upper right of Aldebaran. The bull's two horns will be tilted downwards to the left (or celestial northeast).

Tuesday, July 26: Crescent moon over Venus (before sunrise)

In the east-northeastern sky before sunrise on Tuesday morning, July 26, the brilliant planet Venus will be shining several finger widths to the lower right of the old moon's very slim crescent — close enough to share the view in binoculars (green circle). If you view the duo shortly after they rise, around 4 a.m. local time, the stars of Gemini, the Twins will be visible around them.

Thursday, July 28: Asteroid Juno reverses direction (overnight)

On Thursday, July 28, the eastward prograde motion of the main belt asteroid designated (3) Juno through the background stars of western Pisces will slow to a stop. After tonight Juno will commence a westward retrograde loop that will last until late October (red path with dates:hour). In late July Juno's magnitude 9.6 point of light will rise before 10 p.m. and be observable all night as it crosses the sky. After dusk tonight Juno will be located in the eastern sky, a finger's width to the right (or 1 degree to the celestial southwest) of the medium-bright stars Gamma and Kappa Piscium. Retrograde loops occur when Earth, on a faster orbit closer to the sun, passes more distant solar system objects "on the inside track", making them appear to move backwards across the stars.

Thursday, July 28: New moon 

On Thursday, July 28 at 1:55 p.m. EDT or 10:55 a.m. PDT (17:55 GMT), the moon will officially reach its new moon phase. At that time our natural satellite will be located in Cancer, 4.5 degrees north of the sun. While new, the moon is traveling between Earth and the sun. Since sunlight can only illuminate the far side of the moon, and the moon is in the same region of the sky as the sun, it becomes completely hidden from view from anywhere on Earth for about a day. After the new moon phase, Earth's celestial night-light will return to shine as a crescent in the western evening sky.

Friday, July 29: Southern Delta-Aquariids meteors peak (overnight)

The annual Southern Delta-Aquariids meteor shower lasts from July 21 to August 23. It will peak from dusk on Friday, July 29 through dawn on Saturday, July 30, but it is quite active for a week surrounding the peak. This shower, produced by debris dropped from periodic Comet 96P/Machholz, commonly generates 15-20 meteors per hour at the peak. It is best enjoyed from the southern tropics, where the shower's radiant, in southern Aquarius, climbs higher in the sky. Tonight, the number of meteors will appear while the radiant is highest in the sky, at around 3 a.m. local time. The young crescent moon will have followed the sun down, leaving the entire night dark for meteor-watchers.

Friday, July 29: Jupiter stands still (midnight to dawn)

On Friday, July 29, the eastward prograde motion of the planet Jupiter through the background stars near the border between Pisces and Cetus will slow to a stop. After Friday Jupiter will commence a westward retrograde loop that will last until the end of November (red path with dates:hour). Around midnight in late July, the bright, white dot of Jupiter will be shining in the lower part of the eastern sky. The planet will remain visible as it climbs south — until the dawn twilight hides it. Retrograde loops occur when Earth, on a faster orbit closer to the sun, passes more distant planets "on the inside track", making them appear to move backwards across the stars.

Friday, July 29: Young moon above Mercury (after sunset)

After sunset on Friday, July 29, look just above the west-northwestern horizon for the very slender crescent of the young moon shining two finger widths to the upper right (or 2.5 degrees to the celestial north) of the magnitude -0.74 planet Mercury. They'll be close enough to share the view in binoculars (green circle). Mercury will continue to appear there, without the moon, on the subsequent nights.

Sunday, July 31: Mars approaches Uranus (wee hours)

In the southeastern sky during the mornings starting on Sunday, July 31, the eastward orbital motion of the bright red planet Mars (red path with labeled date:time) will carry it towards Uranus from the right (or celestial west). On Sunday, Uranus will be positioned a thumb's width to the upper left of Mars — close enough to share the eyepiece of a low magnification telescope and binoculars (green circle). At closest approach on August 2, Uranus will be located 1.5 degrees above Mars. To better see Uranus, try to view the pair between 3 and 4 a.m. local time, when they will sit almost halfway up a darkened sky.

Visible planets

Mercury

From mid-northern latitudes, Mercury will be visible with increasing difficulty during the first 10 days of July, when it will shine very low over the northeastern horizon just before sunrise. More southerly observers will be able to view the speedy planet more easily. As Mercury shifts towards the sun each morning, it will diminish in brightness. Telescope views will reveal a shrinking, waxing gibbous phase. The planet will then become unobservable until after it passes the sun at superior conjunction on July 16. During the final third of the month, Mercury will reappear just above the west-northwestern horizon for a short window of time after sunset. It will brighten to magnitude -0.6 at month's end, when the best viewing period will occur just after 8:30 p.m. local time. Mercury's late-July apparition will be only so-so from mid-northern latitudes, but quite good from the tropics. On July 29, the young crescent moon will shine two finger widths to the upper right (or celestial north) of the planet.

Venus

Venus will continue to gleam brilliantly in the east-northeastern pre-dawn sky during July. Its angle from the sun will decrease from 30 to 22 degrees. That will hold it rather low in the sky for mid-northern observers and steadily reduce their viewing time before sunrise - but Venus will continue to put on a splendid showing for observers in the tropics and farther south. Venus' easterly motion will carry it between the horns of Taurus until mid-month. It will spend July 16-18 in northern Orion and then enter the stars of Gemini — dancing with Castor's bright foot stars Propus and Tejat Posterior on July 20 and 21, respectively. Venus will shine at a very bright magnitude of -3.9 all month long. In a telescope, it will display a disk size that shrinks from 12 to 11 arc seconds while its illuminated phase increases from 86% to 92%. On July 26, the pretty, old crescent moon will shine several finger widths to the upper left (or celestial north) of Venus.

Mars

Mars will continue to gradually brighten in July (from magnitude 0.46 to 0.21) as the Earth-Mars distance is reduced. The red planet will be shining in the eastern pre-dawn sky to the lower left of much brighter Jupiter from the wee hours of the morning until almost dawn. Mars' easterly orbital motion through Pisces until July 8, and then in Aries for the rest of the month, will cause it to rise about two minutes earlier each morning. That will steadily increase its separation from Jupiter and will result in Mars rising just after midnight local time at month's end. Telescope views of Mars will show an 86%-illuminated, ochre disk with mere hints of the dark markings that will be obvious come December. Over the month, the planet's apparent disk size will grow from 7.2 to 8.2 arc-seconds. The end of July will see Mars approaching the much fainter planet Uranus from the upper right (or celestial west). They'll be binoculars-close from July 25 onwards. On July 31, the red and blue planets will be cozy enough to share the eyepiece of a low magnification telescope. (Their closest approach will occur on August 2.) On July 21 the waning crescent moon will shine several finger widths to the upper right (or celestial west) of Mars. Hours later, observers in eastern China, Japan, and northeastern Russia can watch the moon occult Mars, on the morning of July 22 at around 15:00 GMT.

Jupiter

Bright, white Jupiter will spend July sliding slowly across the stars in the northwestern corner of Cetus — bracketed by reddish Mars off to its left (or celestial northeast) and yellowish Saturn well to its right (or celestial southwest). Jupiter's easterly prograde motion will slow to a stop on July 29 in preparation for it to enter a westerly retrograde loop that will last until late November. In early July, the magnitude -2.45 planet will rise over the eastern horizon at around 12:40 a.m. local time and then gleam while it climbs into the southeastern sky until the sunrise hides it. From mid-July onward, Jupiter will rise before midnight local time, joining Saturn and Neptune, and kicking summer evening planet-viewing into next gear. Jupiter will be an excellent telescope target during July. Its four Galilean moons will dance to the east and west of its banded orb, which will grow in apparent size from 41 to 45 arc-seconds. The Great Red Spot will appear every second or third morning, and the small, round, black shadow of one of the Galilean moons will transit the planet on July 8, 11, 15, and 31. On July 19 the waning gibbous moon will shine just below (or celestial southeast of) Jupiter, making a nice photo opportunity.

Saturn

Creamy-colored Saturn has been part of the late evening sky since it began to rise before midnight in mid-June. Because it will rise about four minutes earlier each night, the ringed planet will be clearing the treetops by about 10 p.m. local time toward the end of July — giving us plenty of overnight observing hours. Saturn's slow westerly retrograde motion will be apparent as it slides past the medium-bright tail star of Capricornus, Deneb Algedi, which will twinkle a thumb's width below the planet. Saturn will brighten slightly during July as we approach its opposition on August 14. Viewed in a backyard telescope, Saturn's 18.5 arc seconds wide globe, adorned with its 43 arc seconds wide ring system, will be surrounded by a number of its brightest moons. The rings will progressively become more edge-on in appearance until March 2025, so a greater amount of Saturn's southern hemisphere will be extended below its ring plane this year. The waning gibbous moon will pass less than 6 degrees below (or celestial southeast) Saturn on July 15.

Uranus

During July, Uranus will be observable in the lower part of the eastern sky for an hour or two before dawn. The planet's magnitude 5.8, blue-green dot will be visible in binoculars and backyard telescopes as it shifts slowly eastward through the stars of southeastern Aries. At the end of July Mars will be approaching Uranus from the upper right (or celestial southwest). They'll be binoculars-close from July 25 onwards. On July 31, the red and blue planetary duo will be close enough to share the eyepiece of a low magnification telescope. (Their closest approach will occur on August 2.) On July 22 the waning crescent moon will shine a thumb's width to the lower left (celestial east) of Uranus. Hours earlier, observers from northeastern Brazil to the Cape Verde Islands and northwestern Africa can watch the moon occult Uranus around 04:30 GMT — the sixth of 15 consecutive monthly lunar occultations of the seventh planet.

Neptune

As July opens, the distant, blue, magnitude 7.9 planet Neptune will begin to rise before midnight local time, and thereafter about four minutes earlier each night. Throughout the month Neptune will be creeping west through the stars along the Pisces/Aquarius border — positioned about 13 degrees to the upper right (or celestial southwest) of far brighter Jupiter. The best times for viewing Neptune through good binoculars and backyard telescopes will be in the dark sky preceding dawn. In a telescope, Neptune will show a 2.3 arc seconds wide disk. On July 18, the bright, waning gibbous moon will shine 4 degrees below (or celestial southeast of) Neptune.

Skywatching terms

Gibbous: Used to describe a planet or moon that is more than 50% illuminated.

Asterism: A noteworthy or striking pattern of stars within a larger constellation.

Degrees (measuring the sky): The sky is 360 degrees all the way around, which means roughly 180 degrees from horizon to horizon. It’s easy to measure distances between objects: Your fist on an outstretched arm covers about 10 degrees of sky, while a finger covers about one degree.

Visual Magnitude: This is the astronomer’s scale for measuring the brightness of objects in the sky. The dimmest object visible in the night sky under perfectly dark conditions is about magnitude 6.5. Brighter stars are magnitude 2 or 1. The brightest objects get negative numbers. Venus can be as bright as magnitude minus 4.9. The full moon is minus 12.7 and the sun is minus 26.8.

Terminator: The boundary on the moon between sunlight and shadow.

Zenith: The point in the sky directly overhead.

Night sky observing tips

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Adjust to the dark: If you wish to observe fainter objects, such as meteors, dim stars, nebulas, and galaxies, give your eyes at least 15 minutes to adjust to the darkness. Avoid looking at your phone’s bright screen by keeping it tucked away. If you must use it, set the brightness to minimum – or cover it with clingy red film. 

Light Pollution: Even from a big city, one can see the moon, a handful of bright stars, and the brightest planets - if they are above the horizon. But to fully enjoy the heavens — especially a meteor shower, the fainter constellations, or to see the amazing swath across the sky that is the disk of our home galaxy, the Milky Way — rural areas are best for night sky viewing. If you’re stuck in a city or suburban area, use a tree or dark building to block ambient light (or moonlight) and help reveal fainter sky objects. If you’re in the suburbs, simply turning off outdoor lights can help.

Prepare for skywatching: If you plan to be outside for more than a few minutes, and it’s not a warm summer evening, dress more warmly than you think is necessary. An hour of winter observing can chill you to the bone. For meteor showers, a blanket or lounge chair will prove to be much more comfortable than standing, or sitting in a chair and craning your neck to see overhead.

Daytime skywatching: On the days surrounding first quarter, the moon is visible in the afternoon daytime sky. At last quarter, the moon rises before sunrise and lingers into the morning daytime sky. When Venus is at a significant angle away from the sun it can often be spotted during the day as a brilliant point of light - but you’ll need to consult an astronomy app to know when and where to look for it. When large sunspots develop on the sun, they can be seen without a telescope – as long as you use proper solar filters, such as eclipse glasses. Permanent eye damage can occur if you look at the sun for any length of time without protective eyewear. 

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